The main goals relative to “Cognitive Aircraft Systems” are to enhance, augment, and reshape future man-machine interaction in aeronautics, opening the way towards more autonomous, efficient, and intelligent aircraft. “Cognitive Aircraft Systems” will not only boil down to simple execution of actions commanded by the operators, but will also allow deep collaborative work, enabling more efficient decisions and high-performant actions while saving mental and physical resources. These future systems would make use of Artificial Intelligence to provide an augmented knowledge of the context thanks to various means of perception and analysis (pilots’ state, actions, prediction of the pilots’ intentions, tactical situation ...). This would enable systems to learn from a wide range of previous situations in order to better adapt to new ones, and to share relevant information with the crew in order to support decision-making and planning. Ensuring a high level of performance, these Cognitive Aircraft Systems should also provide more natural means of interactions (speech, gesture etc.). Recent trends in this field address several major aspects such as the online monitoring of the flight performances based on behavioral, physiological, and neurological measurements, the design of more ecological man-machine interfaces providing intuitive information about the flight and supporting decision process, and the creation of architecture rules that guarantees a high level of flight safety.